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N°172 (fev 2021)
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English Abstracts

United States

Donald Trump’s record on immigration, measured against his electoral promises

Catherine SAUVIAT

Donald Trump made reducing immigration the main focus of his first presidential campaign. He sought, by any means necessary, to radically alter immigration policy. While the results of his war on undocumented migrants do not live up to his pro-mises, the situation surrounding legal immigration has changed radically. His greatest “success,” as his four-year term comes to an end, is to have managed to propagate and legitimize his concept of immigration as a threat to the economy and to national security in the eyes of the American people.

Keywords: United States, Donald Trump, immigration, campaign promises, un-documented migrants, legal immigration.

United Kingdom

The growth of “in-work poverty”

Jacques FREYSSINET

For over twenty years, successive UK governments have justified labor market and social protection reforms with the argument that work is the best route out of pover-ty. However, despite growth of the employment rate and of the minimum wage, “in-work poverty” is a growing part of total poverty. The main explanation for this paradox lies in the deterioration of the quality of jobs: “We’re supplying more labor because we’re poorer.”

Keywords: United Kingdom, poverty, in-work poverty, employment rate, minimum wage, job quality.

Brazil

Activism in international trade unionism: Two case studies

Maurício ROMBALDI

This report aims to understand the relationship between Brazilian and international trade unionism in the metalworking and telecommunications sectors. In particular, it provides an analysis of the various phases of internationalization in Brazil from the 1980s to the present day, as well as the social conditions allowing Brazilian trade unionists access to international fora. To that end, we will consider the international relationships developed by Brazilian trade union organizations in both sectors and the career paths of the activists who have successfully secured positions in interna-tional federations.

Keywords: Brazil, international trade unionism, metalworking industry, telecommu-nications, international federation.

Germany 

Does the health crisis spell the end of subcontracting in the meat industry? 

Marcus KAHMANN

For some years now, the German authorities have been aware of the “excesses” of the meat industry. In the context of the health crisis, the draft law of July 29, 2020, to bolster labor inspections marks a change in the federal government’s approach and ramps up the pressure on businesses in the sector. It aims to increase the fre-quency of labor inspections and to prohibit subcontracting and temporary employ-ment in businesses with fifty or more employees. This prohibition is likely to shake up hiring practices and to affect the economic model of the sector. This article aims to shed light on the origins of this draft law, which has since been passed on Decem-ber 18, 2020.

Keywords: Germany, COVID-19, meat industry, subcontracting, labor inspection, working conditions, health crisis.

Denmark

The flexicurity model in the face of the COVID-19 crisis

Christèle MEILLAND

From the beginning of lockdown, the Danish center-left government has imple-mented various programs of assistance and subsidies for businesses, administrations, and the financial sector. On March 14, 2020, a tripartite agreement was signed allo-wing employees of struggling businesses to maintain their salary during lockdown. As a result of these measures, the “security” element of the Danish flexicurity model has been promoted to the detriment of the “flexibility” side. Nevertheless, the threat of a third wave of the pandemic represents a risk for the Danish economy and labor market. 

Keywords: Denmark, COVID-19, flexicurity, state aid, labor market, tripartite agreement.

Australia

The social contract as collateral of the health crisis: “All in this together?”

Stéphane LE QUEUX and David PEETZ

The public health effects of COVID-19 were less severe in Australia than elsewhere. Successful containment of the pandemic made an early recovery more feasible, though the impact on the economy and jobs was initially considerable and uneven. A wage subsidy was introduced in response to pressure from social actors, and a form of social dialogue was surprisingly encouraged by the government to facilitate an industrial relations reform program. However, such dialogue seemed difficult to sustain in light of the other aspects of its agenda. 

Keywords: Australia, COVID-19, health crisis, wage subsidy, industrial relations, social dialogue.

 

United States
Donald Trump’s record on immigration,
measured against his electoral promises

Catherine SAUVIAT

Donald Trump made reducing immigration the main focus of his first presidential campaign. He sought, by any means necessary, to radically alter immigration policy. While the results of his war on undocumented migrants do not live up to his promises, the situation surrounding legal immigration has changed radically. His greatest “success,” as his four-year term comes to an end, is to have managed to propagate and legitimize his concept of immigration as a threat to the economy and to national security in the eyes of the American people.

Keywords: United States, Donald Trump, immigration, campaign promises, undocumented migrants, legal immigration.

 

United Kingdom
The growth of “in-work poverty”

Jacques FREYSSINET

For over twenty years, successive UK governments have justified labor market and social protection reforms with the argument that work is the best route out of poverty. However, despite growth of the employment rate and of the minimum wage, “in-work poverty” is a growing part of total poverty. The main explanation for this paradox lies in the deterioration of the quality of jobs: “We’re supplying more labor because we’re poorer.”

Keywords: United Kingdom, poverty, in-work poverty, employment rate, minimum wage, job quality.

Brazil
Activism in international trade unionism:
Two case studies

Maurício ROMBALDI

This report aims to understand the relationship between Brazilian and international trade unionism in the metalworking and telecommunications sectors. In particular, it provides an analysis of the various phases of internationalization in Brazil from the 1980s to the present day, as well as the social conditions allowing Brazilian trade unionists access to international fora. To that end, we will consider the international relationships developed by Brazilian trade union organizations in both sectors and the career paths of the activists who have successfully secured positions in international federations.

Keywords: Brazil, international trade unionism, metalworking industry, telecommunications, international federation.

 

Germany
Does the health crisis spell the end of subcontracting
in the meat industry?

Marcus KAHMANN

For some years now, the German authorities have been aware of the “excesses” of the meat industry. In the context of the health crisis, the draft law of July 29, 2020, to bolster labor inspections marks a change in the federal government’s approach and ramps up the pressure on businesses in the sector. It aims to increase the frequency of labor inspections and to prohibit subcontracting and temporary employment in businesses with fifty or more employees. This prohibition is likely to shake up hiring practices and to affect the economic model of the sector. This article aims to shed light on the origins of this draft law, which has since been passed on December 18, 2020.

Keywords: Germany, COVID-19, meat industry, subcontracting, labor inspection, working conditions, health crisis.

 

Denmark
The flexicurity model in the face of the COVID-19 crisis

Christèle MEILLAND

From the beginning of lockdown, the Danish center-left government has implemented various programs of assistance and subsidies for businesses, administrations, and the financial sector. On March 14, 2020, a tripartite agreement was signed allowing employees of struggling businesses to maintain their salary during lockdown. As a result of these measures, the “security” element of the Danish flexicurity model has been promoted to the detriment of the “flexibility” side. Nevertheless, the threat of a third wave of the pandemic represents a risk for the Danish economy and labor market.

Keywords: Denmark, COVID-19, flexicurity, state aid, labor market, tripartite agreement.

 

Australia
The social contract as collateral of the health crisis: “All in this together?”

Stéphane LE QUEUX and David PEETZ

The public health effects of COVID-19 were less severe in Australia than elsewhere. Successful containment of the pandemic made an early recovery more feasible, though the impact on the economy and jobs was initially considerable and uneven. A wage subsidy was introduced in response to pressure from social actors, and a form of social dialogue was surprisingly encouraged by the government to facilitate an industrial relations reform program. However, such dialogue seemed difficult to sustain in light of the other aspects of its agenda. 

Keywords: Australia, COVID-19, health crisis, wage subsidy, industrial relations, social dialogue.